Friction Example Problem - Physics Homework Help
Friction is the resistance force generated between two bodies as they move across each other. It is proportional to the force that presses the two bodies together. This diagram shows the forces acting on a block sitting on a surface.
The block is pulled down onto the surface by the force of gravity while the surface pushes back in an equal and opposite force known as the normal force: N. Note there are no horizontal forces. If a horizontal force is applied such as pushing the block to the right, the block will begin to accelerate. Experience tells us this does not always happen. If you try to push something heavy, it doesn’t always move until you’ve pushed HARD enough. There must be a force working in the opposite direction of the push to resist the motion. This force is the force of friction, Ff.
Experiments have shown the magnitude
of this force is dependent on the normal force. The magnitude of the friction force is directly proportional to the magnitude of the normal force. The proportionality constant between them is called the coefficient of friction, μf. The f subscript is commonly left off, and is not unusual to see just the μ listed.
The coefficient of friction depends on two factors. The first depends on the materials the two objects are made of. It is generally easier to move 50 kg of ice on a glass surface than a 50 kg stone on sand. Each two materials have their own coefficients of friction.
The second factor is whether or not the block is moving. You may have noticed it is usually easier to move a heavy object once it is already moving. This means there are two different coefficients of friction. One for when the block is stationary, μs (static) and one for when the block begins to move, μk (kinetic).