Essay

उत्तराखण्ड - भारतकोश, ज्ञान का हिन्दी महासागर

uttarakhand ya uttarakhnd bharat ke uttar men sthit ek rajy hai. 2000 aur 2006 ke bich yah uttaranchal ke nam se jana jata tha, 9 navnbar 2000 ko uttarakhnd bharat ganarajy ke 27 ven rajy ke roop men astitv men aya. rajy ka nirman kee varsh ke andolan ke pashchat hua. uttar pashchimi uttarapradesh ka parvatiy pradesh jisamen badarinath aur kedaranath ka kshetr sammilit hai. mukhy roop se gadhaval ka uttari bhag is pradesh ke antargat hai. is prant men vaidik snskriti ke kuchh sabase mahattvapoorn tirthasthan hain. is rajy ki rajadhani deharadoon hai. uttarakhand apani bhaugolik sthita, jalavayu, naisargik, prakritik drishyon evn snsadhanon ki prachurata ke karan desh men pramukh sthan rakhata hai. uttarakhand rajy tirth yatra aur paryatan ki drishti se vishesh mahattv rakhata hai. yahan charon dham badrinath, kedaranath, yamunotri aur gngotri hain. is char dham yatra marg par kee darshaniy sthal hain. pnchaprayag ke nam se prasiddh panch atyant pavitr sngam sthal yahin sthit hai. ye hain- vishnuprayag, nndaprayag, karnaprayag, rudraprayag v devaprayag. isake alava sikkhon ke tirthasthal ke roop men hemakund sahib bhi vishesh roop se mahattvapoorn hai. yahan ki adhikansh jhilen kumaoon kshetr men hain jo ki pramukhatah bhoogarbhiy shaktiyon ke dvara bhoomi ke dharatal men parivartan ho jane ke parinamasvaroop nirmit huee hain.

itihas

pauranik itihas

prachin dharmagrnthon men uttarakhnd ka ullekh kedarakhnd, manasakhnd aur himavnt ke roop men milata hai. lokakatha ke anusar pandav yahan par ae the aur vishv ke sabase bade mahakavyon mahabharat v ramayan ki rachana yahin par huee thi. is kshetr vishesh ke bare men bahut kuchh kaha jata hai, lekin prachin kal men yahan manav nivas ke praman milane ke bavajood is ilaqe ke itihas ke bare men bahut kam janakari milati hai.

bharat ke itihas men is kshetr ke bare men sarasari taur par kuchh janakari milati hai. udaharan ke lie hindoo dharm ke punaruddharak adi shnkarachary ke dvara himalay men badrinath mandir ki sthapana ka ullekh ata hai. shnkarachary dvara sthapit is mandir ko hindoo chautha aur akhiri math manate hain.

devabhoomi

yahan par kushanon, kunindon, kanishk, samudragupt, pauravon, katyooriyon, palon, chndron, pnvaron aur british shasakon ne shasan kiya hai. isake pavitr tirthasthalon ke karan ise devataon ki dharati ‘devabhoomi’ kaha jata hai. uttarakhnd ke parvatiy kshetr paryatakon aur tirthayatriyon ko nirmal prakritik drishy pradan karate hain. vartaman uttarakhnd rajy 'agara aur avadh snyukt prant' ka hissa tha. yah prant 1902 men banaya gaya. sanh 1935 men ise 'snyukt prant' kaha jata tha. janavari 1950 men 'snyukt prant' ka nam 'uttar pradesh' ho gaya. 9 nnvabar, 2000 tak bharat ka 27van rajy banane se pahale tak uttarakhnd uttar pradesh ka hi hissa bana raha.

svatntryottar itihas

svatntryottar bharat men 1949 men isaka ek bar phir ullekh milata hai, jab tihari gadhaval aur ramapur ke do svayatt rajyon ko snyukt prant men milaya gaya. 1950 men naya snvidhan angikar kiye jane ke sath hi snyukt prant ka nam uttar pradesh rakha gaya aur yah ne bharatiy sngh ka snvidhan-sammat rajy ban gaya. uttar pradesh ke gathan ke fauran bad hi is kshetr men gadabadi shuroo ho gee. yah mahasoos kiya gaya ki rajy ki bahut vishal janasnkhya aur bhaugolik ayamon ke karan lakhanoo men baithi sarakar ke lie uttarakhand ke logon ke hiton ka dhyan rakhana asambhav hai. berozagari, garibi, peyajal aur upayukt adharabhoot dhanche jaisi buniyadi suvidhaon ke abhav aur kshetr ka vikas n hone ke karan uttarakhand ki janata ko andolan karana pada. shuruat men andolan kuchh kamazor raha, lekin 1990 ke dashak men yah zor pakad gaya aur 1994 ke muzaffaranagar men isaki parinati charam par pahunchi. uttarakhand ki sima se 20 kimi door uttar pradesh rajy ke muzaffanagar zile men ramapur tirahe par sthit shahid smarak us andolan ka mook gavah hai, jahan 2 aktoobar, 1994 ko lagabhag 40 andolanakari pulis ki goliyon ke shikar hue the.

lagabhag ek dashak ke dirghakalik sngharsh ki parakashtha ke roop men pahadi kshetr ke samajik-sanskritik moolyon ki pahachan aur behatar prashasan ke lie rajanitik svayattata hetu uttaranchal rajy ka janm hua.

bhoogol

uttarakhand rajy ka kshetraphal 53,484 varg kimi aur janasnkhya 8,479,562 (2001 ki janaganana ke anusar) hai. uttarakhand bharat ke uttar - madhy bhag men sthit hai. yah poorvottar men tibbat, pashchimottar men himachal pradesh, dakshin - pashchim men uttar pradesh aur dakshin - poorv men nepal se ghira hai. uttarakhand ka kul bhaugolik kshetraphal 28° 43’ u. se 31°27’ u. aur rekhansh 77°34’ poo. se 81°02’ poo ke bich men 53,483 varg kimi hai, jisamen se 43,035 kimi parvatiy hai aur 7,448 kimi maidani hai, tatha 34,651 kimi bhoobhag vanachchhadit hai. rajy ka adhikansh uttari bhag vrihadtar himalay shrinkhala ka bhag hai, jo oonchi himalayi chotiyon aur himanadiyon se dhaka hua hai, jabaki nimn talahatiyan saghan vanon se dhaki huee hain jinaka pahale angrez lakadi vyapariyon aur svatantrata ke bad van anubandhakon dvara dohan kiya gaya. hal hi ke vanikaran ke prayason ke karan sthiti pratyavartan karane men saphalata mili hai. himalay ke vishishth paristhitik tantr badi snkhya men pashuon - jaise bhadal, him tendua, tendua, aur bagh, paundho, aur durlabh jadi-bootiyon ka ghar hai. [3]

bhoomi

yadyapi uttarakhand men dhool bhare maidan jagah-jagah chhae hue hain, phir bhi yah kshetr khasa vanachchhadit aur atyadhik pahadi hai. barf se dhaki chotiyan, gahari khaiyan, garajati jal dharaon aur sundar jhilon se yukt is kshetr ki bhoo-akriti atyant vividhatapoorn hai. oonche pahadon ke himanad gnga aur yamuna nadi ke srot hain. sabase oonche parvat shikharon men se kuchh uttaranchal men sthit hain, jaise -

  • nnda devi 7,817 mitar
  • badrinath 7,138 mitar
  • satopnth 7,075 mitar
  • trishool 7,120 mitar
  • kedaranath 6,940 mitar
  • kamet 7,756 mitar
  • nilaknth 6,596 mitar

adhikansh shikharon ko hindoo matavalambi pavitr upasana sthalon ke roop men poojate hain. sanskritik aur rajanitik taur par uttarakhand gadhaval aur kumaoon ke roop men do pramukh bhagon men bnta hua hai, jisamen se pratyek ko tin bhoo-akritiyon men banta ja sakata hai, jo pashchimottar se dakshin-pashchim ki or ek-doosare ke samanantar chalati hain.

  1. uttari khand himadri ke nam se prasiddh hai aur yahan zaskar parvatamala v 3,000 se 7,000 ki oonchaee vala mukhy himalay hai. zyadatar uparokt chotiyan isi bhookhand men sthit hain.
  2. himalay ke bad dakshin men 2,000 se 3,000 mitar ki oonchaee par himalay nam se prasiddh nimn himalay sthit hai. yahan par ek rekha men do parvat shrinkhalaen masoori aur nag tibba v pahadi paryatan sthal masoori, nainital, naukuchiya tal, ranikhet aur bahut-si sundar jhilen, jaise nainital, bhimatal v satatal hain.
  3. dakshinatam khand men shivalik pahadiyan hain, jo 300 se 3,000 mitar ki oonchaee vale taraee kshetr men milati hain. shivalik ka dakshini sira snrachanatmak avasadon se bana hai, jise sthaniy taur par doon, deharadoon kahate hain.

apavah

uttarakhand rajy gnga jal pranali ki anek nadiyon ke dvara sinchit hai. yadyapi gnga pranali uttarakhand men kam hi prachalit hai. sudoor pashchimi nadi pranali tons aur yamuna se milakar banati hai. isake poorv men gnga ki pramukh sahayak nadiyan bhagirathi, mndakini, alakananda aur pindar hain. poorv men aur age ramagnga v kosi nadiyan bahati hain. dakshin - poorv men bahane vali nadiyan saraju, gaurignga aur dhaulignga hain. ghatiyan barahamasi nadiyon dvara nirmit gahare darron se bani hain. in nadiyon ko mukhy himalay aur zaskar shrinkhala se satat bahakar ane vali barf se pani milata hai. ye nadiyan jalavidyut utpadan ka ek mahattvapoorn srot hain.

mrida

uttarakhand men mitti ki vibhinn qismen paee jati hain aur sabhi mrida aparadan ke prati snvedanashil hain. uttar men knkarili (himanadon ke sath bahakar aya kachara) se lekar 'kathor mitti' tak paee jati hai. age dakshin men vanon ki 'bhoori mitti' milati hai, jo pray: uthali, knkarili aur prachur jaivik avayavon se yukt hoti hai. nimn himalay ki taraee aur shivalik pahadiyon par 'bhabar mitti' milati hai, jo adhikatar khuradari, 'baluee' se knkarili, atyadhik rndhril aur mukhyat: bnjar hai. sudoor dakshin-poorv men milane vali taraee ki mitti ki snrachana 'chikani', 'domat' aur 'mahin baloo' v khad ki kuchh matra se yukt hoti hai. yah mitti chaval aur ganne ki kheti ke lie upayukt hai.

nadiyan

bharat ki do sabase mahattvapoorn nadiyan gnga aur yamuna isi rajy men janm letin hain, aur maidani kshetron tak pahunchate pahunchate marg men bahut se talabon, jhilon, himanadiyon ki pighali barf se jal grahan karati hain.

van

uttarakhand, himalay shrinkhala ki dakshini dhalan par sthit hai, aur yahan mausam aur vanaspati men oonchaee ke sath bahut parivartan hota hai, jahan sabase oonchaee par himanad se lekar nichale sthanon par uposhnakatibndhiy van hain. sabase oonche uthe sthal him aur pattharon se dhake hue hain. unase niche, 5000 se 3000 mitar tak ghas bhoomi aur jhadi bhoomi hai. samashitoshn shnkudhari van, pashchim himalayi upalpain shnkudhar van, vriksharekha se kuchh niche ugate hain. 3000 se 2600 mitar ki oonchaee par samashitoshn pashchim himalayi chaudi pattiyon vale van hain jo 2600 se 1500 mitar ki unchaee par hain. 1500 mitar se niche himalayi uposhnakatibndhiy pain van hain. unche gnga ke maidanon men nam patajhadi van hain aur sukhane vale taraee-duar savana aur ghasabhoomi uttar pradesh se lagati huee nichali bhoomi ko dhake hue hai. ise sthaniy kshetron men 'bhabhar' ke nam se jana jata hai. nichali bhoomi ke adhikansh bhag ko kheti ke lie saf kar diya gaya hai.[3]

rashtriy udyan

bharat ke nimnalikhit rashtriy udyan is rajy men hain, jaise - jim korbet rashtriy park (bharat ka sabase purana rashtriy udyan) ramanagar, nainital zile men, phoolon ki ghati rashtriy udyan aur nnda devi rashtriy udyan, chamoli zile men hain aur dono milakar yoonesko vishv dharohar sthal hain, rajaji rashtriy udyan haridvar zile men, aur govind pashu vihar aur gngotri rashtriy udyan uttarakashi zile men hai.

jalavayu

ushnakatibandhiy maaunasooni visheshataon vale uttarakhand ki jalavayu shitoshn hai. isaki visheshata mausam ke anusar tapaman parivartan hai. janavari sabase thanda mahina hota hai, jab tapaman uttar men shoony se niche ki or dakshin-poorv men lagabhag 5° se. ho jata hai. mee sabase garm mahina hota hai; phir bhi bharatiy upamahadvip ke paryatakon ko akarshit karane ke lihaz se kam hi garm sabit hota hai. julaee dakshini-pashchimi maaunasoon ka mahina hai. uttarakhand men hone vali kul varsha ka do-tihaee bhag dakshin-pashchimi maaunasoon[4] se ata hai. halanki any mahinon men bhi kuchh varsha ho jati hai. yah thodi bahut pashchimi vikshobh, snvahaniy varsha ya parvatiy anukoolan, jo pahadi kshetron ki visheshata hai, ke dvara hoti hai. kisi bhi mausam ki varsha ki sthaniy pravritti ko thik-thik nahin samajha ja saka hai. phir bhi pahadi dhalanon ke sandarbh men aisa havaon ke karan varsha ki disha badalane se hota hai. poorv aur dakshin-pashchim[5] ki tulana men uttari kshetr ke madhy bhag men zyada[6] varsha hoti hai. joon se sitambar mah men adhikansh varsha hoti hai, jisake karan ghati ki talahati men ane vali badh aur bar-bar hone vale bhooskhalan yahan ki am samasyaen hain. rajy ke uttari bhag men amooman disambar aur march mah men himapat hota hai aur isaka varshik ausat 3 se 5 mitar rahata hai.

arthavyavastha

uttarakhand ki arthavyavastha mukhyatah krishi adharit hai aur rajy ki 10 pratishat janasnkhya krishi karyon men lagi huee hai. uttarakhand khanijon jaise choonapatthar, raauk phaausphet, dolomait, maignesait, kaaupar grephait, sop ston, jipsam ityadi ke mamale men ek dhani rajy hai. 2003 ki audyogik niti ke karan yahan nivesh karane vale niveshakon ko kar rahat di gee hai. yahan poonji nivesh men ullekhaniy vriddhi huee hai.

snsadhan

uttarakhand arthik roop se desh ke sabase pichhade hue rajyon men se ek hai. mukhy roop se yah krishi par nirbhar rajy hai aur kamakaji janasnkhya ka 4/5 se bhi adhik krishi kary men snlagn hai. rajy men audyogikikaran ke lie mahattvapoorn khanij aur oorja snsadhanon ki kami hai. khanij ke nam par keval silika aur choona patthar hi ullekhaniy matra men milate hain. yahan jipsam, maignesait, faausforait aur baauksait ke chhote bhndar hain. is pahadi rajy ki barahamasi nadiyan jalavidyut ka mahattvapoorn srot hain. lekin is oorja srot ki apar sambhavanaon ko abhi bahut kam anka gaya hai. jharanon ka upayog karane vale chhote vidyut kendron ke alava tihari bandh (bhagirathi nadi par nirmanadhin) jal shakti ko kam men lane vali sabase badi pariyojanaon men se ek hai. vanon ko bhi arthik snsadhan mana jata hai. jal shakti aur van snsadhanon ke dohan ke prayas ko paryavaranavidon ke virodh ka samana karana pada hai.

krishi

uttarakhnd ki lagabhag 90 pratishat janasnkhya krishi par hi nirbhar hai. rajy men kul kheti yogy kshetr 7,84,117 hekteyar hain. rajy ke kul kshetraphal ke 12 pratishat bhag men hi kheti hoti hai. gahari dhalanon par sidhidar khet banane padate hain aur is kheti ki kuchh simaen hain. sinchaee ki vyavastha karana ek kathin kary hai. kisan is bat ki savadhani rakhate hain ki nichale star ki sinchaee ke lie sinchaee ka pani oopar satah par rahe. parinamasvaroop, krishi yogy bhoomi ka lagabhag 87 pratishat ek bar se adhik sinch liya jata hai. khadyann, anaj, dalahan (phaliyan), tilahan aur sabziyan am fasalen hain. anaj men chaval sabase priy fasal hai, jisake bad gehoon ka sthan ata hai. vibhinn qism ka mota anaj shushk anuvati dhalanon par ugaya jata hai. rajy ke dakshini bhag men sthit taraee ke ilaqe men, jahan ki halki dhalanon par traiktar ka upayog kiya ja sakata hai, ganna bahutayat men ugaya jata hai.

uttarakhnd ki lagabhag 90 pratishat janasnkhya krishi par hi nirbhar hai. rajy men kul kheti yogy kshetr 7,84,117 hekteyar hain. rajy ki kul abadi ka 75 pratishat hissa gramin hai, jo apani ajivika ke liye paramparagat roop se krishi par nirbhar hai. azadi ke bad jab uttar pradesh jamindari vinash evn bhoomi sudhar qanoon men gram pnchayaton ko unaki sima ki bnjar, parati, charagah, nadi, pokhar, talab adi shreni ki zaminon ke prabandh v vitaran ka adhikar diya gaya to pahad ki gram pnchayaton ko is adhikar se vnchit karane ke liye sanh 1960 men ‘kumaoon uttarakhand jamindari vinash evn bhoomi sudhar qanoon ’ (kooja ekt) le aya gaya. yahi karan hai ki jahan poore bharat men gram pnchayaton ke andar bhoomi prabandh kameti ka pravadhan hai, pahad ki gram pnchayaton ko isase vnchit rakha gaya hai. isake bad sanh 1976 men laye gaye vriksh snrakshan qanoon ne pahad ke kisanon ko apane khet men ugaye gaye vriksh ke dohan se rok diya, jabaki pahad ka kisan vrikshon ka vyavasayik upayog kar apani

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ajivika chala sakata tha. [7]

phasal

uttarakhand ke 55.66 lakh hektear kshetraphal men 34.66 hektear van kshetr hai. bnjar bhoomi parvatiy kshetr men 4.63 lakh hektear hai aur 35,338 hektear maidani kshetr men hai. yahan kharif ki phasal men 7,22,755 hektear men buaee ho rahi hai aur rabi ki phasal men 4,61,820 hektear men ho rahi hai. spasht hai ki rabi ki phasal men 2,60,935 hektear bhoomi parati chhodi gayi. parvatiy aur maidani donon kshetron men sinchit bhoomi men donon phasalen ugaee jati hain, lekin parvatiy anchalon men asinchit kshetr men ek bar parati chhodi jati hai. isako samajhane ke liye ‘sar’ shabd paribhashit karate hain. ganv ke kshetr men jo ek phasal bo di jati hai vo ‘sar’ kahi jati hai. jaise ‘mnduve ki sar’ athava ‘dhan ki sar’. inako ageti aur pachheti sar ke roop men jana jata hai. parvatiy anchal men do varshiy phasal chakr is prakar prabhavi hai ki ek sar ka dvivarshik phasal chakr diya ja raha hai. yah phasal chakr vartaman vaigyanik phasal chakr ke sabhi siddhanton ki apoorti karata hai.

dvivarshiy phasal chakr

kharif pratham rabi pratham dhan, madira mirch, gehoon, jau kauni, aloo (agetisar) masoor, til khariph dvitiy rabi dvitiy madua, bhatt,gahat, parati udad, chaulaee (pachheti sar) yahi phasal chakr doosari sar men dvitiy khariph se arambh kiya jata hai. jab is prakar ki paramparagat kheti arambh huee, tab ki paristhitiyan isake anukool rahin. bhoomi paryapt thi aur janasnkhya kam thi. is prachalan se kary vibhajan bhi hota hai. bhoomi urvara shakti bhi bani rahati hai. pahadi kshetr men barasat men khet ki divaren tootati hain aur parati bhoomi men jadon men in kheton ki marammat ki jati hai. parati bhoomi men loch paida hoti hai, bhoomi ki urvara shakti badhati hai. isake sath hi jadon ki varsha se khet men nami rahati hai aur phalgun ke mahine men kheton ki jutaee ki jati hai. khet men nami bani rahati hai. chait ke mahine men in kheton men dhan, kaudi, bhngira, mirch, til adi bo diye jate hain aur garmi men in kheton men krishi kary gudaee, danela adi kiye jate hain.

doosari sar

doosari sar men gehoon adi ki phasal katane ke bad jutaee karane ke bad maduve ka bij bikher diya jata hai, jo vaishakh - jeth ke andhad (mausam poorv) varsha se jam jata hai. isaki gudaee-niraee ke sath dalen bo di jati hain. is parati bhoomi men jadon bhar ganv ke pashuon ko khuli chhoot hoti hai, jisase udyanikaran, vanikaran, aushadhiy paudh utpadan men badha utpann ho rahi hai, kyonki pratyek varsh men ek bar parati chhodi jati hai. bhaugolik sthiti, jalavayu, buvaee adi ke anusar saron ka namakaran kiya jata hai- agetisar, pachheti sar, taili sar, syedi sar, malli sar, talli sar, uparaoon sar, tala sar adi.

band sar

jab ek sar ki phasal katati hai to usamen pashuon ko chhod diya jata hai, jise mukhasyar (mukt sar) ghoshit kiya jata hai. yah pratha sinchit, asinchit, talaoon, uparaoon, ageti, pachheti sabhi saron men lagoo hai, jisase pragatishil kisanon ko is samasya se joojhana padata hai aur ve hatotsahit hokar rah jate hain. parati sar ke anshik prayog men bhi yahi badha hai. is samasya ka ekamatr hal vartaman men yahi sujhaya ja sakata hai ki ‘band sar’ ka ek naya prayog kiya jaye, jisamen ganv vale tay karen ki ganv ki bhoomi ka ek hissa pashuon ki khuli chhoot se pratibandhit kiya jay. isase kshetr men udyanikaran, vanikaran, chara paudharopan, sabji utpadan, aushadhi ropan, krishi utpadan ke naye prayog kiye ja sakenge. kuchh pradhanon ne aise udaharan prastut bhi kiye hai.

janmajat krishi

parvatiy anchal ki krishi abhi tak vaigyanik kheti se koson door hai. jaivik kheti to yahan ki janmajat krishi hai. ise bhi samajhane ki avashyakata hai. jis asinchit kheti ka ullekh kiya gaya hai, usake liye unnat bij, vaigyanik vidhi, unnat yntr, kit niyntran adi par krishi vaigyanik hath par hath dhare baithe hain. samachar sunakar tajjub hota hai ki parati bhoomi ka bhoomi parikshan kiya jayega, usake anusar karyavahi hogi. asinchit kshetr ki sari bhoomi do sal men ek bar parati rahati hai. bhoomi ka abntan saman roop se nahin hai. isaliye yah abhi snbhav nahin hai. jngali janavar suar (barah), saul (syahi) ke dar se khariph ki phasal bhi parati ka roop lene lagi hai. krishak yah sochane ko majaboor hai ki phasal ugane se ghas ugana adhik labhakari hai. nee pidhi isase trast hai.

niyojan

uttarakhand ke parvatiy bhoobhag ke sabhi kheton ke liye ek hi prakar ka niyojan sambhav nahin hai. pratyek ghati, parvatiy dhal ki bhoomi ki urvara shakti men bhinnata hai. yahan tak ki ek hi ganv ke kheton men tak samanata nahin hai. chara paudharopan, phalotpadan, vanikaran, aushadhiy paudharopan, sabji utpadan, phoolon ki kheti, khadyann utpadan men kaun sa kary kis kshetr ke liye adhik upayogi ho sakata hai. ganv ke achchhe khet anaj utpadan ke liye niyat the. ganv ke oopari hisse ke bhoomi bhavan goshala nirman ke liye niyat the.

bazarikaran

bazarikaran ki bhavana zor pakadane lagi hai aur achchhi talaoon bhoomi men siment aur knkrit ke bhavan khade hone lage hain. sadak chaubat men nivas banane lage hain. ann utpadan kshetr ka hras hone laga hai. uttarakhand ki krishi aj bhi pashu adharit hai, parantu pashupalan men ruchi ghatane lagi hai. yah pravritti uttarakhand ke arthik patan ka karan banane ja raha hai. isake liye van vibhag bhi uttaradayi hai, kyonki usane pashu chara paudhon ke ropan ke prati tatasthata ka bhav paida kar diya hai. chaudi patti ke vanon ki kami ne jaivik khad (paramparagat khad) utpadan men kathinaee paida kar di hai. chara baink banane se samasya ka hal nahin hoga. chara paudharopan se chare ki kami door hogi. bhimal vriksharopan men chara baink ki sambhavana hai. bhimal ki pattiyon ke vyaparikaran men sarthakata hai.

sahastradhara, deharadoon
upay

asinchit kshetr men utpadit ann, dalon, tilahanon davaon ki upalabdhata ke sath bemausami sabji utpadan, kitanashak vanikaran, phoolon ke utpadan se bhoomi ka sadupayog sambhav hai. sath hi durgam sthan ke utpad ki vipanan vyavastha sulabh hone se krishakon men utsah paida hoga aur svamev bhoomi ka sampoorn upayog hone lag jayega.[8]

utpadan

madua, gahat, pahadi aloo, bhatt, pahadi gay ka doodh, ghi aur gaumootr adi pahadi utpadon ne bazar men apana prabhutv jamana arambh kar diya hai. ab chunauti hai ki inake utpadan ko kis prakar age badhaya jaye.

pashupalan

pashupalan vyapak taur par prachalit hai. deyari udyog men sahayak sarvadhik pashu dakshin ki taraee ke ilaqe men milate hain. yadyapi maveshi har ganv men milate hain, phir bhi pahadon men bakari aur bhedapalan hi sarvadhik hota hai. mausam ke anusar phalane-phoolane vale ghas ke maidanon ki talash ritu-pravas ka karan banati hai. yahan gadhaval ke gaddiyon jaise kuchh vishisht samuday hain, jo ritu-pravas ke liye jane jate hain. pashupalan se inake malikon ko atirikt ay prapt hoti hai aur karigaron ko atirikt kam milata hai. rajy bhar men ooni vastron aur savadhani se banaee gee chamade ki vastuon ka utpadan hota hai.

vaniki

uttarakhand ke vanon se nirman v eedhan ki lakadi aur plaivud, kagaz v machis jaise anek audyogik utpadon ke lie kachcha mal milata hai. prakritik roop se akar paee lakadiyon se bani hastashilp kritiyan rajy men vyapak taur par upalabdh hain. rajy sarakar ke dvara chalaye ja rahe pun: van lagane ke karyakramon ko badhava mila hai.

kegyu snsthan, deharadoon
sinchaee aur bijali

rajy ki lagabhag kul 5,91,418 hekteyar krishi bhoomi men sinchaee ki ja rahi hain. rajy men panabijali utpadan ki bharapoor kshamata hai. yamuna, bhagirathi, bhilangana, alakannda, mndakini, sarayoo, gauri, kosi aur kali nadiyon par anek panabijali snyntr lage hue hain, jinase bijali ka utpadan ho raha hai. rajy ke 15,667 ganvon men se 14,447 ganvon men bijali hai.

udyog aur khanij

uttarakhnd men choona patthar, rak phasphet, dolomait, maignesait, tanba, grephait, jipsam adi ke bhndar hain. rajy men 25294 laghu audyogik ikaiyan sthapit hain, jinamen lagabhag 63,599 logon ko rozagar prapt hai. isake atirikt 20,000 karod rupaye ke nivesh vale 1802 udyogon men 5 lakh logon ko kary mila hua hai. is rajy ke adhikansh udyog van snpada par adharit hain. rajy men kul 54,047 hastashilp udyog kriyashil hain.

audyogik vikas

uttarakhand ka audyogik vikas namamatr ko hi hua hai. kuchh audyogik ikaiyan deharadoon ke pas sthit hain. choona patthar ki khadanon ke vivekahin khanan se pradooshan ke star men badhotari ke parinamasvaroop is ilaqe ki kee khadane band hone ke kagar par hain. rishikesh men davaiyon ki ek badi faiktri hai. dakshini zilon men chini ki kee milen hain. uttarakhand men bijali aur koyale ke utpadan ka koee mazaboot adhar nahin hai. neshanal pavar grid isaki mang poori karata hai. tihari vidyut pariyojana poori ho jane par uttarakhand ki vidyut utpadan ki sthiti men vyapak sudhar hoga.

parivahan

sadaken

  • uttarakhand men pakki sadakon ki kul lnbaee 21,490 kilomitar hai.
  • lok nirman vibhag dvara nirmit sadakon ki lnbaee 17,772 kimi, sthaniy nikayon dvara banaee gee sadakon ki lnbaee 3,925 ki.mi. hain.
  • uttarakhand rajy ki vibhinn prakar ki sadaken lagabhag sabhi nagaron ko jodati hain.
  • uttarakhand rajy se hokar koee rashtriy rajamarg nahin guzarata. uttar ke simant ilaqe sadakon se jude nahin hain.
  • pahadon ke kachche raste hi mukhyat: ganvon ko nagaron se jodate hain.
  • zyadatar rajakiy rajamarg bharat ke any bhagon se paryatakon ko lane-le jane aur vibhinn vastuon ki apoorti ke lie prayukt hote hain.

relave

rel path uttar pradesh ke maidanon ke vistar ke roop men ghatiyon ke oopar tak pae jate hain. inamen se koee bhi vistar rajy se antarsabndhit nahin hai. uttarakhnd ke pramukh relave steshan hain-

uddayan

deharadoon men ek havaee adda hai. jauli grant (deharadoon) aur pntanagar (oodhamasinh nagar) men havaee pattiyan hain. naini-saini (pithauragadh), gauchar (chamoli) aur chinayalisaur (uttarakashi) men havaee pattiyon ko banane ka kary nirmanadhin hai. 'pavanahns li.' ne 'rudr prayag' se 'kedaranath' tak tirth yatriyon ke lie helikaauptar ki seva shuroo ki hai.

shiksha

vany anusndhan snsthan, deharadoon

uttarakhand rajy men char vishvavidyalay aur anek snbaddh mahavidyalay hain. masoori men bharatiy prashasanik seva ka prashikshan kendr hai. 1950 ke dashak se skoolon ki snkhya men apratyashit vriddhi huee aur vidyarthiyon ne har star par dakhila liya, jisase 1991 ke 57.27 pratishat ki tulana men 2001 ki janaganana ke anusar shiksha ka ankada badhakar 72.28 pratishat ho gaya. mahilaon (60.26 pratishat) ki tulana men purush (84.01 pratishat) adhik sakshar hain. prathamik vidyalay ke star par shiksha ka madhyam hindi hai. yahan kee gair sarakari avasiy vidyalay hain. jahan shiksha ka madhyam angrezi hai. madhyamik shiksha ke vidyarthiyon ke lie hindi aur angrezi ki padhaee avashyak hai v vishvavidyalay shiksha ka madhyam amataur par angrezi rahata hai. deharadoon men sthit vishesh pathyakram vale snsthanon men faaurest risarch instityoot, sarve aauf indiya, indiyan instityoot aauf rimot sensing, vaild laif instityoot aauf indiya, indira gandhi neshanal faaurest ekedemi aur vadiya instityoot aauf himalayan jiyaaulaauji shamil hain. sentral bilding instityoot roodaki men sthit hai.

etihasik roop se yah mana jata hai ki uttarakhand vah bhoomi hai jahan par shastron aur vedon ki rachana ki gee thi aur mahakavy, mahabharat likha gaya tha. rishikesh ko vyapak roop se vishv ki yog rajadhani mana jata hai. uttarakhand men bahut se shaikshanik snsthan hain. jaise-

  • rudaki ka bharatiy praudyogiki snsthan (pahale rudaki vishvavidyalay)
  • pntanagar ka govind ballabh pnt krishi evn praudyogiki vishvavidyalay
  • vany anusndhan snsthan, deharadoon
  • deharadoon sthit bharatiy sainy akadami
  • ikfaee vishvavidyalay
  • bharatiy vaniki snsthan
  • paudi sthit govind ballabh pnt abhiyantriki mahavidyalay
  • dvarahat sthit kumaoon abhiyantriki mahavidyalay.

snskriti

uttarakhand rajy ke adhikansh tyohar aur avakash hindoo pnchang par adharit hain. uttarakhand ke kuchh mahattvapoorn hindoo tyoharon aur avakashon men buraee ke pratik ravan par ram ki vijay ke upalakshy men manaya jane vala dashahara; dhan ki devi lakshmi ko samarpit dipavali; bhagavan shiv ki aradhana ka din shivaratri; rngon ka tyohar holi aur bhagavan krishn ke janm ke upalakshy men manaee jane vali janmashtami shamil hain. arati kunbh mela, haridvar al-husain bin ali ka shahidi divas muharram; upavas (roze) rakhane ka mahina ramazan; aur dharm vaidhanik tyohar eed rajy men manae jane vale musalamanon ke kuchh pramukh tyoharon men se hain. buddh poornima, mahavir jaynti, guru nanak jaynti aur krisamas bauddhon, jainon, sikkhon aur eesaeeyon ke mahattvapoorn tyohar hain, lekin har jati-dharm ke logon dvara manae jate hain. inake alava ganv-vishesh men manae jane vale chhote-chhote tyohar bhi hain. rajy men har sal saikadon mele bhi lagate hain.
tyohar
  • vishv prasiddh kunbh mela/arddh kunbh mela haridvar men prati barahaven/chhathe varsh ke antaral men manaya jata hai.
  • any pramukh mele/tyohar hain-

paryatan sthal

  • uttarakhand ke pramukh sthal hain-
mindroling stoop, deharadoon
  • kedaranath mndir
  • nainital
  • gngotri
  • yamunotri
  • badrinath
  • haridvar
  • rishikesh
  • hemakund sahib
  • nanakamatta
  • kailash manasarovar ki yatra kumaoon kshetr se hokar hai.
  • vishv prasiddh phoolon ki ghati, pindari glesiyar, roopakund, dayara, bugyal, auli tatha masoori, deharadoon, chakarata, nainital, ranikhet, bageshvar, bhimatal, kausani aur lainsadaun jaise parvatiy sthal akarshan ke kendr hain.

tirthasthal

uttarakhand men char pramukh tirthasthal hain-

  1. yamunotri
  2. gngotri
  3. kedaranath
  4. badrinath.
yamunotri mandir

yamunotri mandir gadhaval himalay ke pashchimi kshetr men 3,235 mitar ki oonchaee par sthit hai. yahan ki isht devi yamuna ko hindoo granthon men vishesh mahatv diya gaya hai. inaki moorti kale sagamaramar se bani hai. yamuna nadi samip ke yamunotri himanad se nikalati hai. mandir men gndhak ke sote ka talab bhi hai.

gngotri mandir

gngotri mandir 3,050 mitar ki oonchaee par sundar devadar aur chid ke pedon se ghira hai. yahan nadi men adha dooba hua prakritik pashan shivaling hai. purakathaon ke anusar shiv ne yahin par baithakar devi gnga ko apani jataon men dharan kiya tha. bhagavan shiv ko samarpit kedaranath mandir 3,580 mitar ki oonchaee par sthit hai. patthar ki sleti pattikaon se bana yah mandir 1000 sal se bhi adhik purana mana jata hai. mandir men mndap aur garbhagrih hain. garbhagrih men shnkvakar pashan akriti sthit hai. mandir ke dvar ke bahar nndi bail ki moorti sthapit hai.

badrinath

bhagavan vishnu ka ghar badrinath alakannda nadi ke kinare 3,130 mitar ki oonchaee par sthit hai. jngali sarasaphal (badari) ke nam par is jagah ka nam badri pada. aisa kaha jata hai ki kale grenait se bani vishnu ki pratima ko adi shnkarachary ne yahan sthapit kiya tha. mandir ke samip hi gndhak ke garm pani ka sota hai.

panne ki pragati avastha

vithika

tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh


Category: Essay

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